A wastegate is a valve that controls the flow of exhaust gas to the turbine of a turbocharger. By controlling and limiting the speed of the turbine, it regulates the boost pressure provided by the turbocharger. By preventing the boost pressure from rising indefinitely, it effectively protects the turbocharger and the engine from damage.
Many engines can handle a small amount of extra power, but the temptation to keep going is always there as power is fairly easy to come by. But a turbo will provide only so much power. The boost pressure for a given turbo is dependent on how much exhaust gas passes through the turbine. A tiny lever, known as the wastegate, controls this. It opens at a pre-determined limit to allow excess exhaust gas to bypass the turbine and vanish straight down the exhaust pipe after hitting the boost limit.
A wastegate would usually have a spring on one side of the diaphragm and raise pressure on the other. The gate opens to bleed off exhaust gases at the point where boost exerts force greater than the spring pressure. Reducing the pressure generated by the wastegate or rising the spring 's strength would open the wastegate at higher boost pressure. Thus, the engine would gain more boost and power.
But, and it is a big but, the exception to that is what the turbo can handle, both physically and from an airflow point of view. When too much exhaust gas is transmitted through the turbine, the machine can over-speed, which puts mechanical stress on it and can cause problems of all sorts, such as broken shafts or failing compressor wheels.
Furthermore, the air that flows into the engine will begin to become very unstable, a condition known as "rise." It can have very negative effects on the combustion chamber and on the power supply. The alternative is to tailor the turbo to the specifications, and replace a regular version with one tailored for the job, which is more boost, if necessary. It may be a physically larger turbocharger, or different features of the turbine and compressor.
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